Total views : 256

An Overview on Anxiety:Etiology and Therapy


  • Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, 12/1 Chikkabellandur, Carmelaram Post, Bangalore - 35, India


Purpose: Anxiety disorders have turned out to be the most common mental health conditions prevailing all over the world. The symptoms of anxiety are very common in the community, not only affecting the younger generations but also the elderly. There have been a number of advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders in recent decades. Normal anxiety is a kind of emotion that mainly helps to face the threats and problems awaiting an individual. But when this emotion exceeds a certain limit, it causes harm to the same individual. Thus, this paper gives an overall review on what exactly anxiety is, how is it caused and the different treatment methods used so far for anxiety. Apart from this the future aspects has also been covered in this paper.

Approaches: The data were collected from various sources like journal articles, textbooks, internet, related materials in library and databases such as pubmed, google scholar and so on.

Findings: New developments are forthcoming in the field of alternative strategies for managing anxiety and for treatment-resistant cases.

Conclusion: As a word, anxiety may seem very small to read but when it comes to a person's life it can be life threatening. There are varieties of conventional treatment methods available for anxiety and many promising therapies are yet to come.


Anxiety Disorders, Epidemiology, Psychological Treatments, Psychotherapy, Antidepressants.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 100)


  • Spinella M. The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medicine: Plant Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain and Behaviour. Cambridge, MA: The MIT press. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul; 28(4): 300–301.
  • Seligman, Walker EF, Rosenhan DL. Abnormal psychology. 4th Edition. New York: WW Norton & Company. 2001, chapter 7.
  • Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998 ;280(18):1569-1575.
  • Wittchen HU, Jacobi F. Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe: a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur. Neuropsycho-pharmacol.2005; 15,357-376.
  • Cates M, Wells BG. Anxiety Disorders. Textbook of Therapeutics: Drug and Disease Management.1996: 1073-1093.
  • Pies RW. Clinical manual of psychiatric diagnoses and treatment: a biopsychosocial approach. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC; Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 1(5): 166.
  • Hettema JM, Neale MC, Kendler KS. A review and meta analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(10):1568-78.
  • Torgersen S. Genetic Factors in Anxiety Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1983;40(10): 1085-1089.
  • Tocchetto A, Salum GA. Evidence of association between Val66Met polymorphism at BDNF gene and anxiety disorders in a community sample of children and adolescents. Sep 2011;502(3): 197–200.
  • Sandford J J, Argyropoulos SV, Nutt DJ. The psychobiology of anxiolytic drugs Part 1: basic neurobiology. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2000;88: 197-212.
  • Eysenck MW. Approaches to Abnormality. In MW Eysenck, Psychology: An International Perspective. New York: Psychology Press. 2004: 794-853.
  • Sarason IG, Sarason BR. The problem of maladaptive behavior. Abnormal Psychology. 8th Edition. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India; 2000: 180-207.
  • Providing best care for anxiety disorders in general practice. NPS Prescribing Practice Review. NPS MedicineWise; 2009.
  • Barbotte E, Guillemin F, Chan N. Prevalence of impairments, disabilities, handicaps and quality of life in the general population: a review of recent literature. The International Journal of Public Health. 2001;79: 1047-1055.
  • Majcher D, Pollack MH. Childhood anxiety disorders: Do they grow out of it? Long-term outcomes of childhood disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. 1996: 139-169.
  • Offord DR, Boyle MH, Campbell D, Goering P, Lin E, Wong M et al. One-year prevalence of psychiatric disorder in Ontarians 15 to 64 years of age. Can Journal of Psychiatry 1996;41:559-563.
  • Eaton WW, Kessler RC, Wittchen HU, Magee WJ. Panic and panic disorder in the United States. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:413-420.
  • Lepine JP. The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: prevalence and societal costs. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2002;14, 14-18.
  • Lisa B, Rivas-Vazquez, Rafael A. Assessment and treatment of social anxiety disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2003: 396-405.
  • Whittal ML, Thordarson DS, McLean PD. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention. 2005;43(12):1559-76.
  • James D Herbert, Brandon A. Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2009: 167–177.
  • Knekt P, Lindfors O, Laaksonen MA. Psycho-therapy Study Group. Effectiveness of short-term and long-term psychotherapy on work ability and functional capacity: A randomized clinical trial on depressive and anxiety disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders.2008;107(1-3): 95-106.
  • Feldman. American Psychological Association. 2004.
  • Snyder BD, Polasek TM, Doogue MP. Drug interactions: principles and practice. AustPrescr 2012;35:85-88.
  • Cassano, Giovanni B, Rossi, Nicolò Baldini. Psychopharmacology of anxiety disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 2002;4(3): 271–285.
  • Barlow, David H, Durand, Mark V. Mood Disorders and Suicide. Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. 2009;239.
  • Koen N, Stein DJ. Pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders: A c r i t i cal rev iew. Dialogues Cl inNeuros c i . 2011;13(4):423–437.
  • Ravindran LN, Stein MB. The pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders: A review of progress. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(7): 839–854.
  • Llorca PM, Spadone C, Sol O. Efficacy and safety of hydroxyzine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a 3-month double-blind study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002, November; 63 (11): 1020–1027.
  • McDougle CJ. Update on pharmacologic management of OCD: Agents and augmen-tation. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58:11–17.
  • Ravindran LN, Stein MB. The pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders: A review of progress. J Clin Psychiatry.