Total views : 309

Standardization and Phytochemical Investigation of Calendula Officinalis, Cassia Tora and Momordica Charantia Seed Extract


  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Government college of Pharmacy, Bangalore - 560 027, India
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Krupanidhi college of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India


Purpose: "Standardization" the process of developing and implementing technical standards and to maximize compatibility, safety, repeatability and quality of the drugs is one of the important measures in view of the various practical problems encountered from time to time especially in the field of herbal drugs and Ayurveda.Scientific data pertaining to the standardization of the herbal drugs could be of immense value to substantiate efficacy, safety or toxicity of an herb. Hence present study was intended to standardize Calendula officinalis flowers, Cassia tora and Momordicacharantia seed extracts, since these are widely used in large number of herbal, ayurvedic and homeopathic formulations.

Methodology: Systematic investigations were carried out to assess various quality parameters as per WHO guidelines such as morphological, microscopical and proximate analysis including ash values, moisture contents and extractive values and TLC for Calendula officinalis flowers, Cassia tora and Momordicacharantia seed extracts.

Results: Results indicated the authenticity of the herbal drugs used in the study. Organoleptic and proximate analyseswere well within the acceptable limits. TLC system was developed for identification of the extracts. Quantitative estimation of total saponins, phenols and flavonoid contents were determined. Herbs tested indicated absence of heavy metals and arsenic. Qualitative phyto chemical analysis of extracts obtained using different solvents revealed presence of glycosides, saponins, triterpenes, phenols, tannins and carbohydrates in different extracts.

Conclusion: Study was successful in establishing quality standards for the flowers of Calendula officinalis, seed of Momordicacharantia and Cassia tora. These preliminary studies may offer great help in initial procurement and assessment of quality of the crude drugs when these are being used as raw materials for preparations of herbal formulations.


Standardization, Calendula Officinalis, Cassia Tora, Momordicacharantia, Proximate Analysis, Quantitative Study.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 122)


  • Lucy H and Edgar J. Medicinal plants: a re-emerging health aid. EJB electronic J Biotecnol 1999;2(2):56-70.
  • Hatano T, Uebayashi H, Ito H, Shiota S, Tsuchiya T, Yoshida T, Phenolic constituents of Cassia seeds and antibacterial effect of some naphthalenes and anthraquinones on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chem PharmBull. 47(8), 1999,1121-27.
  • Grover JK and Yadav SP. Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordicacharantia: a review. J Ethanopharmacol2004;93:123-32.
  • ESCOP Monograph. Calendulaeflos (Calendula flower). ESCOP Monographs Second edition(ESCOP 2003).
  • Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. WHO publication 1998.ISBN92 4 154510 0 (NLM QV 766).
  • Brain KR and Turner TD. The practical evaluation of phytopharmaceuticals. Wright Sciencetechnica, Bristol, 1975, pp 81– 82.
  • British Pharmacopoeia (1980). Vol. II, Appendix XII, Her majesty stationary office, A108, A113, London, pp. 1276 – 1277.
  • Ellen JB, Sydney MF. Baily&Scott’s diagnostic microbiology. 8th ed. Missouri, USA , 1990, pp562-568.
  • Rajpal V. Standardization of botanicals; Testing and extraction methods of medicinal herbs. 1st edn., New Delhi: Easter publishers, 2002.
  • Nadkarni KM, The Indian Materia Medica. 3rdreved., Bombay, India, Popular parakashan publishers. 1982, pp 246-249.
  • Patel RP and Patel KC. Antibacterial activity of Cassia tora and Cassia obovata. Indian J Pharm. 1957;19:70-75.
  • Tomi NS, Kränke Band Aberer E. Staphylococcal toxins in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and erythroderma, and in healthy control subjects. AAD.2005; 53(1)67-72.
  • Guidelines of care for Psoriasis “AAD Bulletin” 1991, 9, 10.
  • Ido I. Emodin – a secondary metabolite with multiple ecological functions in higher plants. New Phytologist. 2002; 155: 205–17.
  • Kim YM, Lee CH, Kim HG, Lee HS. Anthraquinones isolated from Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed show an antifungal property against phytopathogenic fungi. Jagric Food Chem..2004;52(20):6096-100.
  • Acharya TK, Chatterjee IB. Isolation of chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone, the major antifungal principle of Cassiatora. Lloydia.1975;38 (3):218-20.
  • Masayuki Y, Toshiyuki M, Akinobu K, Tadashi K and Hisashi M. Medicinal Flowers. III.1) Marigold. (1): Hypoglycemic, Gastric Emptying Inhibitory, and Gastroprotective Principles and New Oleanane-Type Triterpene Oligoglycosides, Calendasaponins A, B, C and D from Egyptian Calendula officinalis. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2001; 49(7): 863-70.
  • Sankaranarayanan J, Jolly CI. Phytochemical, antibacterial and pharmacological investigations on Momordicacharantia, linn. Emblica officinalisgaertn. And Curcuma longa linn. Ind Jr Pharm Sci 2000;62(5): 33942.