Journal Ethics

The Editorial Process

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Copies of Permission (if any)

It is the responsibility of authors/ contributors to obtain permissions for reproducing any copyrighted material. A copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript.

Study design:

Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population.Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (

Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs

Initiative Type of Study Source
CONSORT Randomized controlled trials
STARD Studies of diagnostic accuracy
QUOROM Systematic reviews and meta-analyses http://www.consort-
STROBE Observational studies in epidemiology
MOOSE Meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology http://www.consort-

Protection of Patient’s / Subject’s Right to Privacy

Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives written informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained written informed consent from the patients. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the article and copy of the consent should be attached with the covering letter. 

Clinical Trial Registry

Authors of manuscripts involving clinical trials must provide full registration of their clinical trial(s). A clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. The trial must have at least one prospectively assigned concurrent control or comparison group in order to trigger the requirement for registration.

Ethics: When reporting studies on human beings, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (available at For prospective studies involving human participants, authors are expected to mention about approval of (regional/ national/ institutional or independent Ethics Committee or Review Board, obtaining informed consent from adult research participants and obtaining assent for children aged over 7 years participating in the trial. The age beyond which assent would be required could vary as per regional and/ or national guidelines. Ensure confidentiality of subjects by desisting from mentioning participants’ names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. 

Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA and World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Humans for studies involving experimental animals and human beings, respectively). The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the ‘Materials and Methods’ section.

Authorship Criteria & Credits

Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to each of the three components mentioned below:  1. Concept and design of study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data;

2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and

3. Final approval of the version to be published.

Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Each contributor should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content of the manuscript. The order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor towards the study and writing the manuscript. One or more author should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to published article and should be designated as 'guarantor'. Once submitted the order cannot be changed without written consent of all the contributors. The journal prescribes a maximum number of authors for manuscripts depending upon the type of manuscript, its scope and number of institutions involved (vide infra). The authors should provide a justification, if the number of authors exceeds these limits.

Conflicts of Interests / Competing Interests

All authors of must disclose any and all conflicts of interest they may have with publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented. Authors should also disclose conflict of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript.


JPR considers plagiarism as an act of intentionally copying others work or someone’s research or intellectual content without providing the appropriate credit or references. JPR will judge any case of plagiarism on its limits. If plagiarism is detected by the editorial board member, reviewer, editor etc., in any stage of article process- before or after acceptance, during editing or at a page proof stage. We will alert the same to the author(s) and will ask them to rewrite the content or to cite the references from where the content has been taken. If more than 25% of the paper is plagiarized- the article may be rejected and the same is notified to the author.

If plagiarism is detected after publication, the Journals will conduct an investigation. If plagiarism is found, the journal editorial office will contact the author's institute and funding agencies. The paper containing the plagiarism will be marked on each page of the PDF. Depending on the extent of the plagiarism, the paper may also be formally retracted. By submitting Author(s) manuscript to JPR it is understood that it is an original manuscript and is unpublished work and is not under consideration elsewhere. Plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the author's own work, in whole or in part without proper citation is not tolerated by the journal. Manuscripts submitted to the journal may be checked for originality using anti-plagiarism software.

Plagiarism misrepresents ideas, words, and other creative expression as one's own. Plagiarism represents the violation of copyright law. Plagiarism appears in various forms.

  • Copying the exact content from the other source. Purposely using portions of another author's paper.
  • Copying elements of another author's paper, such as figures, tables, equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge, or copying or purposely using sentences without citing the source.
  • Using text downloaded from the internet
  • Copying or downloading figures, photographs, pictures or diagrams without acknowledging your sources

Extent of Plagiarism:

    Self-plagiarism is a related issue. In this document we define self-plagiarism as the verbatim or near-verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source. Note that self-plagiarism does not apply to publications based on the author's own previously copyrighted work (e.g., appearing in a conference proceedings) where an explicit reference is made to the prior publication. Such reuse does not require quotation marks to delineate the reused text but does require that the source be cited.
    Any verbatim text taken from another author must be enclosed in quotation marks- and has a limit of 50 words, with appropriate citation.
    One may not even know that they are plagiarizing. It is the author(s) whose responsibility is to make certain that they understand the difference between quoting and paraphrasing, as well as the proper way to cite material.
    Here, author(s) are well aware that they are plagiarizing. Purposefully using someone else's ideas or work without proper acknowledgment is plagiarism. This includes turning in borrowed or bought research papers as one's own.
  • SELF
    Turning in the same term paper (or substantially the same paper) for two courses without getting permission from one's instructor is plagiarism.